Authors: Jessica Mitchell, Abriti Arjyal, Sushil Baral, Dani Barrington, Paul Cooke, Fariza Fieroze, Rumana Huque, Prudence Hamade, Helen Hawkings, Nichola Jones, Sophia Latham, Ayuska Parajuli, Md Badruddin Saify, Rebecca King on behalf of the CE4AMR network
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a social and biological problem. Although resistance to antimicrobials is a natural phenomenon, many human behaviors are increasing the pressure on microbes to develop resistance which is resulting in many commonly used treatments becoming ineffective. These behaviors include unregulated use of antimicrobial medicines, pesticides and agricultural chemicals, the disposal of heavy metals and other pollutants into the environment, and human-induced climatic change. Addressing AMR thus calls for changes in the behaviors which drive resistance. Community engagement for antimicrobial resistance (CE4AMR) is an international and interdisciplinary network focused on tackling behavioural drivers of AMR at community level. Since 2019 this network has worked within Low-Middle Income Countries (LMICs), predominantly within Southeast Asia, to tackle behavioral drivers of AMR can be mitigated through bottom-up solutions championed by local people. This commentary presents seven Key Concepts identified from across the CE4AMR portfolio as integral to tackling AMR. We suggest it be used to guide future interventions aimed at addressing AMR via social, participatory, and behavior-change approaches.